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Chandarli Halil Pasha

Biography of Chandarli Halil Pasha

Chandarli Halil Pasha, who was a highly influential Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Murad II during the years of his reign and Mehmed II, the ruler of the empire from 1439 to 1 June 1453 precisely. He was a member of the Chanderli family, a very influential political family in the Ottoman Empire. His grandfather (Chandarli Halil Pasha the Elder) also served as Grand Vizier under Murad. Chandarli Pasha

Details of Chandarli Hallil Pasha and his family:

Ottoman given name “Halil”. Surname Pasha and family name is “Chandarli”. Chandarli Halil Pasha was one of the members of the Chandarli family who held the position of Grand Vizier in the Ottoman Empire. His father was Chandarli Ibrahim Pasha. His uncle Chandarli Ali Pasha. and his grandfather Chandarli Halil Pasha had held this position in the past. His own son Chandarli Ibrahim Pasha also later became Grand Vizier. He was a wise and wise Ojir.

Sultan Murad II was more interested in religion and art than politics. When Sultan Murad retired to Manisa city. Halil Pasha then built a fort in a nearby town to protect the Sultan, which was renamed Chandarli after his own family (the fort is still the most famous landmark in Candarli).

At this time of Murad II’s retirement the nominal Sultan was Mehmed II. He was still a teenager. Halil Pasha controlled everything in the empire from the capital Edirne. Everything in the empire was under his control. Among the military forces, the Janessari forces would sit and sit at his behest. In one word, Halil Pasha was a seasoned player in the field of politics. He was more powerful than the Sultans.

After Sultan Mehmed ascended the throne as a teenager, various seditions from Europe began to cause political trouble, when Halil Pasha deposed Mehmed and reinstated Murad II. After the death of Murad Khan, Mehmed II again sat on the throne. Although he retained Halil Pasha as the chief ojir, Sultan Mehmed did not forget the previous incident.

Due to various political reasons, Sultan Mehmed II had a hostile attitude towards Chandarli. For more than a century they had influence in the empire. The Chandarli family became extremely wealthy, perhaps even more so than the ruling Ottoman family.

Constantine’s letter and Chandarli’s reply:

When Mehmed II became Sultan, the Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI sent a messenger to the Ottomans, requesting the release of Mehmed II Orhan. Orhan was a member of an Ottoman family and claimed the throne and rebelled and fought several times. Chandarli Halil Pasha was angered by this message and replied to the messenger.

“You foolish Greek, I have long known your cunning ways. The late Sultan was a humble and conscientious friend of yours. The current Sultan Mehmed is not of the same mind. “Sultan Mehmed will soon conquer Constantinople, breathing on his shoulders.”

“You’re living in a fool’s paradise if you think you want to scare us with your imagination when the ink is barely dry on our recent peace treaty. We are not children without power or wisdom. If you feel like starting something, do it. If you want to declare Orhan Sultan of Thrace go ahead. If you want to bring the Hungarians across the Danube, let them come. If you want to recover long lost places, try this”.

“But know this, you dare not advance in any of these things. If you do, you will lose everything you have”.

Personality of Chanderli Halil Pasha:

Chandarli Halil Pasha was a man of deadly genius. It was impossible to defeat him in the political arena. Even the cunning sultans like Murad Khan and Mehmed Khan were defeated by him. He was certainly a great vizier for the Ottoman Empire both intellectually and politically But seeing the series, many people are making bad comments against him

Halil Pasha’s loyalty to the empire was unquestionable, but he overestimated his power and was arrogant, so that after the death of Sultan Murad and his children, the Sultanate was disrupted by the Janissaries, using various tricks to prevent his power from diminishing. Many soldiers were martyred in it. Because of Halil Pasha, a state of war was created between the Muslims.

So he could not give anything except chaos during the reign of Sultan Mehmed. Halil Pasha always wanted to influence the sultans and this was noticed by Sultan Murad and Mehmed, but he could not do anything because he did not get the right opportunity. However, after conquering Istanbul, the Sultan completed the task without any further thought. However, Halil Pasha’s talent must be praised. Did a lot for the empire.

What would have happened if Sultan Mehmed Khan had accepted Chandarli Halil Pasha’s advice?
Ozir Azam Halil Pasha was against the conquest of Constantinople. He had a stronger plan than conquering Constantinople. Chandarli had a plausible reason why he opposed the conquest of Constantinople. Mehmed Khan’s great-grandfather Bayezid Khan besieged Constantinople for eight years. Then he fell to Taimur.

The whole world saw the end of the empire. Mehmed Khan’s father Murad Khan, Murad Khan’s uncle Musa Celebi also besieged this invincible city. No one succeeded. So Chanderli was not at all willing to take a new risk.

At that time, Constantinople was nothing more than a city. Only the golden horn meant freedom of movement for them. Means the meeting point of the Bosphorus with the Black Sea. As they had the rights on that road, there was an opportunity to do import and export. But, on both sides of the Bosphorus, the Ottomans had absolute dominance.

Anadolu Hisari was built by Bayezid Khan. This fort served as a watch tower on the Asian side of the Bosphorus. And Mehmed Khan II was built by Rumeli Hisari. This fort was the gatekeeper of the European part. That is, except for the Golden Horn, Constantinople was completely enclosed by the Ottoman Empire. Therefore, Halil Pasha was not in favor of sacrificing so much money and soldiers to win this city separately.

Chandarli had a more brilliant and cunning plan. Since the Bosphorus was occupied by the Ottomans, Chanderli wanted the Ottomans to move further west. The Ottomans never set foot in Western Europe. Chanderli Halil Pasha planned to conquer Western Europe.

Germany, Italy, Rome (the capital of the Holy Roman Empire), Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, then France. With the amount of energy and money that Sultan Mehmed Khan expended in the siege of Constantinople, if Chandarli Halil Pasha’s plan had gone ahead, it would have been possible to conquer half of Western Europe. The war music of the Janissaries might have been played at the gates of Berlin, Munich, Heidelberg, Rothenburg, Mainz. A more strategic move than the conquest of Constantinople. It could.

But God’s will was different Ultimately, the Ottomans never gained a foothold in Western Europe. Even in 1683, the Ottoman military led by Mustafa Pasha was defeated while besieging Vienna. Vienna was called the gateway to Western Europe. The fall of the Ottomans began at the gates of Western Europe.

Chandarli’s wishes and desires:

When Sultan Mehmed went to conquer Constantinople in 1453, he had only 80,000 soldiers with him. His navy was the first navy of the Ottomans. Who had not participated in any naval battle till then. Geographically and politically far from Germany, the Ottomans could not afford to penetrate into Hungary.

1st: With only 80,000 troops, Ankora Navy, two giant cannons, the Ottomans’ entry into the river and mountain-encircled Hungary was as difficult as entering a lion’s den. Belgrade had to be conquered before Vienna was conquered. Belgrade was the gateway to Europe. And Belgrade was a Catholic kingdom of Hungary. Belgrade was a strong fortress.

Belgrade was surrounded by three rivers, Sava, Drava, Danube. The Ottoman Navy did not have ships capable of navigating these shallow rivers. This is why Sultan Al Fatih suffered a crushing defeat in Belgrade in 1456. His army that conquered Constantinople failed to conquer Belgrade. On the other hand, Constantinople was inside the stomach of the Ottomans.

2nd: The Sultan’s monstrous cannon, the Basilica, required 50 pairs of oxen to pull it. 500 years ago, when there were no mobile phones, we can’t even imagine how difficult it was to drag that cannon from Edirne, plow through the mountains, cross 4 shallow rivers and drag it to the Belgrade fortress in the belly of inaccessible Europe. Guerrilla attacks by a handful of European soldiers would have crushed the huge Ottoman army. Where the Ottomans were foreigners and their enemies were aware of every speck of dust on the way.

3rd: The Catholic-Orthodox problem was the issue that was causing tension between Constantinople and the West. Help came to Constantinople from the west as Sultan Mehmed succeeded in furthering this schism. But the King of Belgrade was Catholic. The Pope called it the fortress of Christianity. All of Europe would have been united to attack Belgrade. Constantinople, on the other hand, was isolated from the Christian world.

In fact, Halil Pasha wanted to conquer Europe by conquest. But Sultan Mehmed’s geopolitics was different from that of his great-grandfather Bayezid I. Chanderli wanted the Ottomans to move further west. The Ottomans never set foot in Western Europe. Chanderli Halil Pasha planned to conquer Western Europe. Germany, Italy, Rome etc.,,, if Halil Pasha’s plan was followed, it would have been possible to conquer Western Europe.

Why did Sultan Mehmed II order the execution of Halil Pasha?

It’s pretty clear. Halil Pasha was the head of the political section opposed to the imperialist policies of Mehmed II. Mehmed II lost his throne to Halil Pasha and his father Murad II became Sultan for the second time.

Halil Pasha was very powerful and the military was under his control. Moreover, he belonged to the famous Turkic-born Chandarlis that contributed to government affairs for centuries. Eventually, Mehmed II saw him as a threat to his ultimate power. Official excuse: Halil Pasha was found guilty of taking bribes (the Byzantine government had bribed him) Historians eventually agree that this charge is baseless.

In fact, Halil Pasha was so rich and powerful that he did not need any kind of bribe even if he wanted to. Politically he was against the conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) because he feared that it would lead to a great war against the Turks by the European powers.

Istanbul, he claimed, was a rotten apple and would eventually fall to the Turks. At this point historic Istanbul was surrounded by Turks anyway and the city even had mosques and politically dissident Turks and Turkish merchants. He feared that military operations would also damage trade relations. Most notably, Halil Pasha worked for the Byzantines when Sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople. It is treason and this act is basically a curse for him.

Chandarli Pasha’s captivity and death:

One of the first acts committed by Sultan Mehmed II immediately after the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 was the capture of Chandarli Halil Pasha. The city was taken on 29 May 1453 and Halil Pasha was captured and imprisoned on 1 June 1453. He was executed on 10 July 1453. And he was buried in the city of Iznik in an open tomb without a roof like his ancestors. Chanderli Halil Pasha was the first Ottoman Grand Vizier to be executed by the Sultan. Later Chanderli Ibrahim Pasha, son of Chanderli Halil Pasha, served as Chief Ojir.

Sajidur Rahman

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